Study of Morphological and Biochemical Traits of Marigold as Influenced by Phosphorous Biofertilizer and Zinc

Document Type: Original Article


1 Horticultural Department, Islamic Azad University,Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran

2 Young Researchers and Elite Clubs, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.


The application of biofertilizers constitutes one of the main components of nutrient management with a fundamental role in sustainable agriculture and the improvement of plant qualitative traits. The present research assessed the effect of various treatments of phosphate solubilizing bacteria including Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and Pseudomonas putida strain P13 (seed inoculation, the application of biofertilizer 2, 4 and 6 weeks after plant emergence, and no inoculation of seeds as control treatment) and the foliar application of ZnSO4 (at 0, 1, 2, and 3 g L-1 rates) on morphological and biochemical traits of marigolds. It was found that the highest plant height and flower fresh weight belonged to plants whose seeds were inoculated with biofertilizer and were fertilized with 2 g L-1 ZnSO4 and also, in plants treated with biofertilizer 2 weeks after plant emergence and fertilized with 1 and 2 g L-1 ZnSO4. Also, the highest flower dry weight and anthocyanin content were obtained from the treatments of biofertilizer 2 and 4 weeks after plant emergence supplemented with 1 and 2 g L-1 ZnSO4. The highest P content was seen in the treatments of biofertilizer 4 and 6 weeks after plant emergence × 2 and 1 g L-1 ZnSO4. In addition, the highest Zn content was obtained from biofertilizer application 6 weeks after plant emergence and in plants fertilized with 3 g L-1 ZnSO4. In contrast, the lowest amount of most parameters was observed at different levels of biofertilizer application without the use of ZnSO4 and with the use of 3 g L-1 ZnSO4. Therefore, the foliar application of ZnSO4 and the soil application of phosphate solubilizing fertilizers can influence the biochemical and morphological traits of marigolds.


Aboutalebian, M.A. and Khodabandehloo, N. 2017. Improving yield and water use efficiency of corn under water deficit conditions by using mycorrhiza and foliar application of zinc sulfate. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 48 (1): 57-70. (In Persian).

Ahmed, A.H.H., Khalil, M.K., Abd El-Rahman, A.M. and Nadia, A.M.H. 2012. Effect of zinc, tryptophan and indole acetic acid on growth, yield and chemical composition of ‘Valencia’ orange trees. Journal of Applied Science and Research, 8: 901-914.

Akter, N., Ara, K.A., Akand, M.H. and Alam, M.K. 2017. Vermicompost and trichocompost in combination with inorganic fertilizers increased growth, flowering and yield of gladiolus cultivar (GL-031) (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.). Advances in Research, 12: 1-11.

Anna, L.B., Alessandra, S., Claudia, E., Paola, C. and Maddalena, D.G. 2013. In vitro and in vivo inoculation of four endophytic bacteria on Lycopersicon esculentum. New Biotechnology, 30: 666–674.

Arnon, A.N. 1949. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal, 23: 112-121.

Azzaz, N.A., Fassan, E.A. and Elemarey, F.A. 2007. Physiological, anatomical and biochemical studies on pot marigold (Colendula officinalis L.). Plant African Crop Science Conference Proceeding, 8: 1727-1738.

Baha, N. and Bekki, A. 2015. An approach of improving plant salt tolerance of lucerne (Medicago sativa) grown under salt stress: Use of bio-inoculants. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 34: 169–182.

Bashan, Y. and de-Bashan, L.E. 2010. How the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum promotes plant growth–a critical assessment. Advances in Agronomy, 108: 77-136.

Bremner, J.M. and Mulvaney, C.S. 1982. Nitrogen-total. In: AL Page, RH Miller, DR Keeney (Eds). Methods of soil analysis, Part 2-Chemical and microbiological properties. 2nd ed., Agronomy, pp.522-592.

Buntariu, M. and Zepa Cradini, C. 2012. Evaluation of biologically active compounds from Calendula officinalis flowers using spectrophotometry. Butnariu and Coracini Chemistry Central Journal, 6: 1-7.

Carstensen, A., Herdean, A., Schmidt, S. B., Sharma, A., Spetea, C., Pribil, M. and Husted, S. 2018. The impacts of phosphorus deficiency on the photosynthetic electron transport Chain. Plant physiology, 177: 271-284.

Castillo-Gonzalez, J., Ojeda-Barrios, D., Hernandez-Rodriguez, A., Abadia, J., Sanchez, E., Parra-Quezada, R., Valles-Aragon, M.C. and Sida-Arreola, J.A.P. 2019. Zinc nutritional status of pecan trees influences physiological and nutritional indicators, the metabolism of oxidative stress, and yield and fruit quality. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici, 47 (2): 531-537.

Chapman, H.D. and Pratt, P.F. 1961. Determination of minerals by titration method: Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. 2nd Edn. California University, Los Angeles, pp: 169-170.

Das, K., Dang, R., Shivananda, T.N. and Sur, P. 2005. Interaction between phosphorus and zinc on the biomass yield and yield attributes of the medicinal plant stevia (Stevia rebaudiana). Science World Journal, 5: 390-395.

Desbrosses, G.J. and Stougaard, J. 2011. Root nodulation: A paradigm for how plant- microb symbiosis influences host developmental pathways. Cell Host Microbe, 10: 348–358.

Eftekhari, S.A., Ardakani, M.R., Rejali, F., Paknejad, F. and Hasanabadi, T. 2012. Phosphorus absorption in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under different phosphorus application rates and co-inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescence and Azospirillum lipoferum. Annals of Biological Research, 3: 2694-2702.

Gyaneshwar, P., Kumar, G.N., Parekh, L.J. and Pool, P.S. 2002. Role of soil microorganism in improving nutrition of plants. Plant Soil, 245: 83-93.

Hadi, H., Daneshian, J., Hamidi, A. and Asghar Zade, A. 2007. Effect of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter on soybean seed characteristics in field and laboratory. Abstract Articles in the Second National Ecology Agronomy Congress, Iran.

Han, H.S. and Lee, K.D. 2005. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria effect on antioxidant status, photosynthesis, mineral uptake and growth of lettuce under soil salinity. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 1: 210-215.

Jay, P.V., Janardan, Y., Kavindra, N.T. and Ashok, K. 2013. Effect of indigenous Mesorhizobium spp. and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yields and nutrients uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under sustainable agriculture. Ecological Engineering, 51: 282–286.

Jenschke, G., Brandes, B., Kuhn, A.J., Schoder, W.H., Becker, J.S. and Godlbdd, D.L. 2000. The mycorrhizal fungus Paxillus in volutes magnesium to Norway spruce seedlings. Evidence from stable isotope labeling. Plant and Soil, 220: 243-246.

Kamkar, B., Daneshmand, A.R., Ghooshchi, F., Shiranirad, A.H. and Safahani Langeroudi, A.R. 2011. The effects of irrigation regimes and nitrogen rates on some agronomic traits of canola under a semiarid environment. Agricultural Water Management, 98: 1005-1012.

Kang, S.M., Khan, A.L., Waqas, M., You, Y.H., Kim, J.H., Kim, J.G., Hamayun, M. and Lee, I.J. 2014. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria reduce adverse effects of salinity and osmotic stress by regulating phytohormones and antioxidants in Cucumis sativus. Journal of Plant Interactions, 1: 673–682.

Khorgamy, A. and Farnia, A. 2009. Effect of phosphorus and zinc fertilization on yield and yield components of chick pea cultivars. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 9: 205-208.

Kocabas, I., Kaplan, M., KurKuoglu, M. and Baser, K.H.C. 2010. Effects of different organic manure applications on the essential oil components of Turkish sage (Salvia fruticosa Mill.). Asian Journal of Chemistry, 22: 15199-16005.

Kudsen, D. and Peterson, G.A. 1982. Lithium, sodium and potassium. pp: 225-245. In: A.L. Page, R.H. Miller, R. Kenny. (eds.). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbiological propertirs (2nd ED.), Agronomy 9.

Li, R., Volenec, J.J., Joern, B.C. and Cunningham, S.M. 1998. Effects of phosphorus nutrition on carbohydrate and protein metabolism in alfalfa roots. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 21: 459-474.

Mousavi, S.R. 2011. Zinc in crop production and interaction with phosphorus. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(9): 1503-1509.

Mudgal, V., Madaan, N., Mudgal, A. and Mishra, S. 2009. Changes in growth and metabolic profile of chickpea under salt stress. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 23: 1436- 1446.

Nadeem, F. and Farooq, M. 2019. Application of micronutrients in rice-wheat cropping system of south Asia. Rice Science, 26: 356-371.

Nagajyoti, P.C., Lee, K.D. and Sreekanth, T.V.M. 2010. Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: A review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 8: 199–216.

Nagananda, G.S., Das, A., Bhattacharya, S. and Kalpana, T. 2010. In vitro studies on the effects of biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Rhizobium) on seed germination and development of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. using a novel glass marble containing liquid medium. International Journal of Botany, 6: 394-403.

Parent, L.E. 2005. Phosphoruse transformations in acid light-textured soils treated with dry swine manure. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 85: 75-87.

Parveen, S., Alizai, N.A., Shah, R., Ali, M. and Kakar, H. 2015. Evaluation of different doses of NPK for cut flower production. International Journal of Life Sciences, 9 (1, 2, 3, and 4): 3270-3273.

Potarzycki, J. and Grzebisz, W. 2009. Effect of zinc foliar application on grain yield of maize and its yielding components. Plant, Soil and Environment, 55 (12): 519-527.

Raesee, N., Vakili, S.M.A., Sarhady, G. and Torkynegad, F. 2015. Effects of manure, iron and zinc fertilizers on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31: 138-149.

Rajendran, G., Sing, F., Desia, A.G. and Arenchana, G. 2008. Enhanced growth and nodulation of pigeon pea by co-inoculation of Bacillus strains with Rhizobium spp. Bioreseurce Technology, 99: 4544-4550.

Rakshapal, S., Sumit, K.S., Rajendra, P.P. and Alok, K. 2013. Technology for improving essential oil yield of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) by application of bioinoculant colonized seeds under organic field conditions. Indian Crop Production, 45: 335–342.

Salimpour, S., Khavazi, K., Nadian, H., Besharati, H. and Miransari, M. 2010. Enhancing phosphorous availability to canola (Brassica napus L.) using P solubilizing and sulfur oxidizing bacteria. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4 (5): 330-334.

Sawan, Z.M., Mahmoud, M.H. and El-Guibali, A.H. 2008. Influence of potassium fertilization and foliar application of zinc and phosphorus on growth, yield components, yield and fiber properties of Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). Journal of Plant Ecology, 1 (4): 259-270.

Shitolw, S.M. and Dhumal, K.N. 2012. Influence of foliar application of micronutrients on photosynthetic pigments and organic constituents of medicinal plant (Cassia agustifolia Vahl.).Annual of Biological Research, 3: 520-526.

Subba, P., Mahato, S., Bhutia, K., Mondal, T. and Ghosh, S. 2014. Zinc stress induces physiological, ultra-structural and biochemical changes in mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) seedlings. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 20: 461–473. 

Taha, Z., Sarhan, B., Ghurbat, H., Mohammad, T. and Jiyana, T. 2011. Effect of bio and organice fertilizers on growth yield and fruit quality of summer aquasg. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 27: 377-383.

Talaat, N.B., Ghoniem, A.E., Abdelhamid, M.T. and Shawky, B.T. 2015. Effective microorganisms improve growth performance, alter nutrients acquisition and induce compatible solutes accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants subjected to salinity stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 75: 281–295.

Tesfamariam, E.H., Annandale, J.G. and Steyn, J.M. 2010. Water stress effects on winter canola growth and yield. Agronomy Journal, 102: 658-666.

Violante, A., Huang, P.M., Bollag, J.M. and Gianfreda, L. 2002. Soil mineral-organic matter-microorganism interactions and ecosystem health: Ecological significance of the interactions among clay minerals, organic matter and soil biota. Elsevier, Netherlands. First Edition, 434 p.

Wagner, G.J. 1979. Content and vacuole/extra vacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids and anthocyanins in protoplast. Plant Physiology, 64: 88-93.

Xiao, W., Wang, R.S., Handy, D.E. and Loscalzo, J. 2018. NAD (H) and NADP(H) redox couples and cellular energy metabolism. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, 28: 251-272.

Yadar, J., Yadav, S. and Singh, S. 2011. Plant growth promoting in wheat crop under enviromental condition by PSB as biofertilizer. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2: 76-78.

Yassen, A., Abou El-Nour, E.A.A. and Shedeed, S. 2010. Response of wheat to foliar spray with urea and micronutrients. Journal of American Science, 6: 14-22. 

Zaidi, A., Saghir, M.D. and Amil, M.D. 2003. Interactive effect of rhizotrophic microorganism on yield and nutrient uptake of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.). European Journal of Agronomy, 19: 15-19.

Zare Dehabadi, S., Asrar, Z. and Mehrabani, M. 2008. Effect of zinc on growth and some physiological and biochemical parameters of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). Iranian Journal of Biology (Biological Science Promotion), 20: 230-240.