Document Type: Original Article
Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
Essential oil content and compositions of 49 Iranian landraces of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) was investigated in Sanandaj (Iran) during 2004-2008. Essential oils were isolated with distillation method and component composition was determined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty main compounds were identified in the essential oil representing about 90% of the total oil. The major components were found to be n-nonadecane (with seasonal range of 32.4-36.1%), n-heneicosane (20.3-22.1%), citronellol (6.6-10.3%), n-hexadecanol (6.4-6.7%) and n-tricosane (5.9-7.0%). Added to the oil content, the percentages of citronellol and geraniol as two important compounds related to rose oil quality in 2008 were more than 2007, thus, it can be inferred that dry conditions increases the aliphatic compounds percentages and reduces alcoholic compounds in rose oil. Although there were varying origin sites, climates and ecological conditions among landraces, the results of cluster analysis (CA) released that all of them with exception KB1 and AK1 showed more than 90% similarity in the major oil composition. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the landraces of with the highest percentage of citronellol and geraniol components usually show extreme values (positive or negative) of PC1 and PC2.