Morphological and Physiological Traits of Catharanthus roseus L. at Different Irrigation Intervals as Affected by Salicylic Acid Application

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Horticulture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

Abstract

The effects of varying irrigation intervals (I) and foliar application of salicylic acid (M) on morphological and physiological traits of Catharanthus roseus L. were studied in a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete design with three replications. The experimental treatments consisted of four irrigation intervals [2 days (I1), 4 days (I2), 6 days (I3) and 8 days (I4)] and foliar application of 200 mg L-1 salicylic acid (SA) at three frequencies [0 (M0), one (M1) and two (M2) times]. Among the morphological traits, treatment I2M2 resulted in the greatest number of flowers (25.66 flowers), the fewest leaf abscissions (3.8), and the highest root fresh weight (1.181 g); I1M0 resulted in the highest plant height (154 cm), leaf number (36 leaves), internode length (9.243 mm), shoot fresh weight (8.636 g), and shoot dry matter (26.20%); and I1M2 resulted in the largest flower diameter (1.176 mm), node number per plant (16.66 nodes), plant fresh weight (9.366 g), and root dry matter (30.03%). Among physiological traits, I1M0 was related to the highest chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and petal anthocyanin. The highest and lowest proline contents were obtained from I3M2 and I2M0, respectively. The lowest MDA content of 1.42 nmol g-1 fresh weight (FW) was observed in I4M1 and the highest SOD activity of 88 IU g-1 FW was obtained from I3M0. POD activity was lowest in I2M0 and highest in I4M2. In total, given the detrimental impacts of water deficit stress at irrigation intervals of 6 and 8 days, it is recommended that SA be applied to improve the growth of Catharanthus. roseus L.

Graphical Abstract

Morphological and Physiological Traits of <i>Catharanthus roseus</i> L. at Different Irrigation Intervals as Affected by Salicylic Acid Application

Highlights

  • Given the detrimental impacts of water deficit stress at irrigation intervals of 6 and 8 days, it is recommended that SA be applied to improve the growth of Catharanthus. roseus L.

Keywords


Ahmed, F., Baloch, D.M., Sadiq, S.A., Ahmed, S.S., Hanan, A., Taran, S.A., Ahmed, N. and Hassan, M.J. 2014. Plant growth regulators induced drought tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 24 (3): 886-890.

Amiri, A., Sirousmehr, A. and Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, S. 2016. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid and chitosan on yield of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Journal of Plant Researches, 28 (4): 712-725.

Bates, I.S., Waldern, R.P. and Tear, I.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free praline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205-207.

Bezrukova, M.V., Sakhabutdinova, R., Fatkudtinova, R.A. and Shakirova, F. 2001. The role of hormonal changes in protective action of salicylic acid on growth of wheat seedlings under water deficit. Agrochemiya (Russ), 2: 51-54.

Chini, A., Grant, J.J., Seki, M., Shinozaki, K. and Loake, G.J. 2004. Drought tolerance established by enhanced expression of the CC-NBS-LRR gene, ADR1, requires salicylic acid, EDS1 and ABI1. Plant Journal, 38: 810-822.

Dashtbany, Sh.,  Hashemabadi, D. and  Sedaghathoor, Sh. 2015. Study on interaction effects of mechanical and Geranium essential oil treatments on vase life of cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum L.). Journal of Ornamental Plants, 5(2): 97-103.

Dat, J.F., Foyer, C.H. and Scott, I.M. 1998. Changes in salicylic acid and antioxidants during induced thermotolerance in mustard seedlings. Plant Physiology, 118: 1455-1461.

Delany, T.P., Uknes, S., Vernooij, B., Friedrich, L., Weymann, K., Negrotto, D., Gaffney, T., Gut Rella, M., Kessmann, H., Ward, E. and Ryals, J. 1994. A central role of salicylic acid in plant disease resistance. Science, 266: 1247-125.

Du, Y.C., Nose, A., Wasano, K. and Ushida, Y. 1998. Responses to water stress of enzyme activities and metabolite levels in relation to sucrose and starch synthesis, the Calvin cycle and the C4 pathway in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.). Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 25: 253–260.

Elgamaal, A.A. and Maswada, H.F. 2013. Response of three yellow maize hybrids to exogenous salicylic acid under two irrigation intervals. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 5(3): 264-274.

EL-Tayeb, M.A. 2005. Response of barley grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regulation, 45: 215-224.

Eraslan, F., Inal, A., Gunes, A. and Alpaslan, M. 2007. Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on growth, antioxidant activity and physiology of carrot plants subjected to combined salinity and boron toxicity. Scientia Horticulturae, 113: 120-128.

Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Lee, D.J., Cheema S.A. and Aziz, T. 2010. Comparative time course action of the foliar applied glycinebetaine, salicylic acid, nitrous oxide, brassinosteroids and spermine in improving drought resistance of rice. Journal of Agriculture Crop Science, 196: 336-345.

Ghaderi, N., Normohammadi, S. and Javadi, T. 2015. Morpho-physiological responses of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) to exogenous salicylic acid application under drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 17:167-178.

Giannopolitis, C. and Ries, S. 1997. Superoxid desmutase. I: Occurence in higher plant. Plant Physiology, 59: 309–314.

Gornik, K., Grzesik, M. and Duda, B.R. 2008. The effect of chitosan on rooting of grapevine cuttings and on subsequent plant growth under drought and temperature stress. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 16: 333-343.

Hayat, Q., Hayat, S.H., Irfan, M. and Ahmad, A. 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment. A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68: 14-25.

Heath, R.L. and Parker, L. 1968. Photo peroxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stiochiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archive of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 125: 189-198.

Horváth, E., Pal, M., Szalai, G., Paldi, E. and Janda, T. 2007. Exogenous 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and salicylic acid modulate the effect of short term drought and freezing stress on wheat plants. Biologia Plantarum, 51: 480-487.

Hosseini, S.M., Kafi, M. and Arghavani, M. 2015. The effect of salicylic acid on physiological characteristics of lolium grass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Numan’) under drought stress. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR), 7 (1): 7-14.

Hussein, M.M., Balbaa, L.K. and Gaballah, M.S. 2007. Salicylic acid and salinity effects on growth of maize plants. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3: 321-328.

In, B.C., Motomura, S., Inamoto, K., Doi, M. and Mori, G. 2007. Multivariate analysis of relation between per harvest environmental factors, postharvest morphological and physiological factors and vase life of cut ‘Asomi Red’ roses. Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 76: 66-72.

Jalili Marandi, R. 2010. Physiology of environmental stress and resistance mechanisms in horticultural plants. Urumie, Jahad University Press, 636 page.

Kang, C. and Wang, C. 2003. Salicylic acid changes activities of H2O2 metabolizing enzymes and increases the chilling tolerance of banana seedlings. Journal of Environment and Experimental Botany, 50 (1): 9-15.

Kareem, F., Rihan, H. and Fuller, M.P. 2017. The effect of exogenous applications of salicylic acid and molybdenum on the tolerance of drought in wheat. Agricultural Research and Technology Journal, 9 (4): 1-9.

Katsuhara, M., Otsuka, T. and Ezaki, B. 2005. Salt stress-induced lipid peroxidation is reduced by glutathione S-transferase, but this reduction of lipid peroxides is not enough for a recovery of root growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Sciences, 169 (2): 369-373.

Keshavarz, H., Modares Sanavi, S.A.M., Zarin Kamar, F., Dolatabadian, A., Panahi, M. and Sadat Asilan, K. 2012. Evolution effect salicylic acid foliar on same traits biochemical two Brasica napus L. under cool stress. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 42 (4): 723-734.

Khodary, A.S.E. 2004. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6 (1): 5-8.

Korkmaz, A., Uzunlu, M. and Demirkiran, A.R. 2007. Treatment with acetyl salicylic acid protects muskmelon seedlings against drought stress. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 29: 503-508.

Loyola-Vargas, V.M.L., Rosa, M., Avalos, G. and Ku Cauich, R. 2007. Catharanthus biosynthetic enzymes: The road ahead. Phytochemistry Reviews, 6:307-339.

Mazumdar, B.C. and Majumdar, K. 2003. Methods on physicochemical analysis of fruits. www. Sundeepbooks.com. 187p.

Munne-Bosch, S. and Penuelas, J. 2003. Photo and antioxidative protection, and a role for salicylic acid during drought and recovery in field grown Phillyrea angustifolia plants. Planta, 217: 758-766.

Nazar, R., Umar, S., Khan, N.A. and Sareer, O. 2015. Salicylic acid supplementation improves photosynthesis and growth in mustard through changes in proline accumulation and ethylene formation under drought stress. South African Journal of Botany, 98: 84-94.

Nematollahi, E., Jafari, A. and Bagheri, A. 2013. Effect of drought stress and salicylic acid on photosynthesis pigments and macronutrients absorption in two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology, 5 (12): 37-51.

Osakabe, Y., Osakabe, K., Shinozaki, K. and Tran, L.S.P. 2014. Response of plants to water stress. Frontiersin Plant Science, Plant Physiology, 5: 1-8.

Popova, L., Ananieva, V., Hristova, V., Christov, K., Georgieva, K., Alexieva, V. and Stoinova, Zh. 2003. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate induced protection on photosynthesis to parquet oxidative stress. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology, 133-152.

Qinghua, S.H. and Zhujun, Z. 2008. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid on manganese toxicity, element contents and antioxidative system in cucumber. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 63: 317-326.

Sain, M. and Sharma, V. 2013. Catharanthus roseus (an anti-cancerous drug yielding plant) - a review of potential therapeutic properties. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 1 (6): 139-142.

Salarpour Ghoraba, F. and Farahbakhsh, H. 2015. Effects of water deficit and salicylic acid on essential oil and antioxidant enzymes of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Agricultural Crop Management (Journal of Agriculture), 16 (3): 765-778.

Sandoval-Yepiz, M.R. 2004. Reguladores de crecimiento XXIII: Efecto del acido salicılico en la biomasa del cempazu ́ chitl (Tagetes erecta). In: Thesis de Licenciatura, Instituto Tecnolo gico Agropecuario, Conkal, Yucata, Mexico.

Shakirova, F.M., Shakhabutdinova, A.R., Bezrukova, M.V., Fatkhutdinova, R.A. and Fatkhutdinova, D.R. 2003. Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seeding induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant Science, 164 (4): 317-322.

Singh, B. and Usha, K. 2003. Salicylic acid induce physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedling under water stress. Plant Growth Regulation, 39: 137-141.

van der Heijden, R., Jacobs, D.I. and Snoeijer, W. 2004. The Catharanthus alkaloids: Pharmacognosy and biotechnology. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 11: 1241- 1253.

Zarghami, M., Shoor, M., Ganjali, A., Moshtaghi, N. and Tehranifar, A. 2014. Effect of salicylic acid on morphological and ornamental characteristics of Petunia hybrida at drought stress. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4 (3): 523-532.