Effect of Seasons, Gender and Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Adventitious Root Induction of Male and Female Juniperus communis L.

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Golestan, Iran


Scrutinizing of different aspects in vegetative propagation of Iranian J. communis L. is of prime importance in order to prevent extinction of such valuable conifer. In this research, the effects of different seasons, gender, different chemical compounds (IBA, PBZ, putrescine and sodium nitroprusside) and three strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on ex-vitro rooting capacity of male and female J. communis L. were evaluated. Rooting of semi-hard wood J. communis L.cuttings in autumn were notably successful either in female or male plants. Research results indicated that cutting gained in September provides the highest rooting percentage in female plants while no significant differences in rooting ability were found in male plants which were collected in December and September. There were a female-biased root induction trends between genders. Treatment of female cuttings with IBA declined rooting to the half, even in male cuttings it completely suppress root induction ability compared to control plants. Our empirical evidence on presence of genetic difference in random amplified loci of male and female plants to some extent can explain the difference in rooting competency which can be influenced by difference in genetic make up. A4 strain of A. rhizogenes managed to yield 53.5% rooting compared to the other strains in male plants. The gender-mediated adventitious root formation of J. communis L. which has supported with some genetic evidence will pave the way for further fundamental studies to delineate the missing molecular key of rooting mechanisms.

Graphical Abstract

Effect of Seasons, Gender and Agrobacterium rhizogenes Strains on Adventitious Root Induction of Male and Female Juniperus communis L.


  • Female-biased adventitious root induction ability of Juniperus communis.


Carpenter, C.D., O'Neill, T., Picot, N., Johnson, J.A., Robichaud, G.A., Webster, D. and Gray, C.A. 2012. Anti-mycobacterial natural products from the Canadian medicinal plant Juniperus communis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology,143: 695-700.

Carroll, J.F., Tabanca, T., Kramer, M., Elajalde, N.M., Wedge, D.E., Bernier, U.R., Coy, M., Becnel, J.J., Demirci, B., Baser, K.H., Zhang, L. and Zhang, S. 2011. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, Juniperus communis, and J. chinensis (Cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and as toxicants against mosquitoes. Journal of Vector Ecology, 36: 258–268.

Davis, T.D. and Haissig, B.E. 1990. Chemical control of adventitious root formation in cuttings. Plant Growth Regulation Society, 18: 1–18.

Gergoff Grozeff, G.E., De Los, Á., Romero, M. and Videla, A. 2018. Nitric oxide in combination with indole-3-butyric acid improves root growth in ‘Ferdor Julior’ hardwood cuttings (Prunus insistitia (L.) × Prunus domestica (L.)). Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 93: 175-184.

Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E., Davis, F.T. and Geneve, R.L. 2011. Plant propagation: principles and practices, 8th ed. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs. 878. P.

Henrique, A., Campinhos, E.N., Ono, E.O. and Pinho, S.Z. 2006. Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 49: 189–196.

Houle, G. and Babeux, P. 1994. Variations in rooting ability of cuttings and in seed characteristics of five populations of Juniperus communis var. Depressa from subarctic Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany, 72: 493-498.

Kusari, S.,  Lamshöft, M. and Spiteller, M. 2009. Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann as a novel source of the anticancer pro‚Äźdrug deoxypodophyllotoxin. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 107: 1019-1030.

McAfee, B., White, E., Pelcher, L. and Lapp, M. 1993. Root induction in pine (Pinus) and larch (Larix) spp. using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 34: 53-62.

Pagnussat, G.C., Lanteri, M.L. and Lamattina, L. 2003. Nitric oxide and cyclic GMP are messengers in the indole acetic acid-induced adventitious rooting process. Plant Physiology, 132: 1241-1248.

Ragonezi, C., Klimaszewska, K., Castro, M.R., Lima, M., de Oliveira, P. and Zavattieri, M.A.  2010. Adventitious rooting of conifers: Influence of physical and chemical factors. Trees, 24: 975–992.

Rifaki, N., Economou, A. and Hatzilazarou, S. 2002. Factors affecting vegetative propagation of Juniperus exelsa Bieb. by stem cuttings. Propagation of Ornamental Plants, 2: 9-13.

Sarmast, M.K. 2016. Genetic transformation and somaclonal variation in conifers- a review. Plant Biotechnology Report, 10: 309-325.

Sarmast, M.K. 2018. In vitro establishment of conifers by mature shoots. Journal of Forestry Research, 29: 565-574.

Sarmast, M.K., Salehi, H. and Khosh-Khui, M. 2012. In vitro rooting of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 13: 123-130.

Sarmast, M.K., Salehi, H. and Niazi, A. 2015. Biochemical differences underlie varying drought tolerance in four Festuca arundinacea Schreb. genotypes subjected to short water scarcity. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 37(192): 1-13.

Tang, W. and Newton, R.J. 2005. Polyamines promote root elongation and growth by increasing root cell division in regenerated Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) plantlets. Plant Cell Reports, 24: 581–589.

Villalobos-Amador, E., Rodríguez-Hernández, G. and Pérez-Molphe-Balch, E. 2002. Organogenesis and Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced rooting in Pinus maximartinezii Rzedowsky and P. pinceana Gordon. Plant Cell Reports, 20: 779–785.

Wiesman, Z. and Lavee, S. 1995. Enhancement of IBA stimulatory effect on rooting of olive cultivar stem cutting. Scientia Horticulturae, 65: 189–198.