Effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Salinity Stress on Flowering and Biochemical Characteristics of Winter Jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum L.)

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Horticultural Department, Islamic Azad University,Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Young Researchers and Elite Clubs, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of salinity stress and sprayed of the 6-benzylaminopurine (benzyl adenine) on morphological and biochemical characteristics of winter jasmine. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in 2016-2017 growing seasons in research center of greenhouse production of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch. The experiment was carried by using a factorial based on completely randomized design with 4 levels of salinity stress (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) as the first factor and different levels of benzyl adenine (control (non-application), 25 and 50 mg l-1) as a second factor was performed in 3 replications (total of 36 plots). The traits such as fresh and dry weight of flower, flower number, content of the chlorophyll a, b, total, carotenoids, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme of winter jasmine plant were studied. The results showed that salinity levels and benzyl adenine foliar application have a significant effect on all of traits. The results showed that the activity of SOD was significantly higher in application of 8 dS m-1 salinity than the 2 dS m-1 treatment, and the highest enzymatic activity were recorded at 8 dS m-1 treatment. On the other hand, in investigating the effects of foliar application of Benzyl adenine treatment, it was observed that this factor had positive effects on all of the above traits and their effects were concentration-dependent. It can be concluded that although salinity stress had a negative effect on winter jasmine, benzyl adenine treatment has minimized the negative effects of salinity stress.

Highlights

  • Benzyl adenine effects on morphological and biochemical traits of winter jasmine.
  • Salinity levels had negative effect on morphological and biochemical traits of winter jasmine.
  • Application of BA reduced the salinity effects of winter jasmine.

Keywords


Abo-Kassem, E.D.M. 2007. Effects of salinity: Calcium interaction in growth and nucleic acid metabolism in five species of Chenopodiaceae. Turkish Journal of Botany, 31: 25134.

Acosta-Motos, J.R., Ortuno, M.F., Bernal-Vicente, A., Diaz-Vivancos, P., Sanchez-Blanco, M.J. and Hernandez, J.A. 2017. Plant responses to salt stress: Adaptive mechanisms. Agronomy,7: 1-38.

Albacete, A., Ghanem, M.E., Dodd, I.C. and Pérez-Alfocea, F. 2010. Principal component analysis of hormone profiling data suggests an important role for cytokinins in regulating leaf growth and senescence of salinized tomato. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 5: 45-48.

Al-Hakimi, A.M.A. and Hamada, A.M. 2001. Counteraction of salinity stress on wheat plants by grain soaking in ascorbic acid, thiamin or sodium salicylate. Journal of Plant Biology, 44 (2): 253-261.

Amirjani, M.R. 2010. Effect of NaCl on some physiological parameters of rice. Enterprise JavaBeans Science, 3: 6-16.

Arghavani, M., Savadkoohi, S. and Mortazavi, S.N. 2017. Salinity tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass as affected by salicylic acid. Journal of Ornamental Plants. 7: 237-245.

Arnon, D.I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenol-oxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiology, 2 (1): 1-15.

Ashraf, M. 1994. Organic substances responsible for salt tolerance in Eruca sativa. Plant Biology, 36: 255-259.

Ashraf, M. and McNielly, T. 2004. Salinity tolerance in Brassica oil seeds. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 23: 157-174.

Bailly, C. 2004. Active oxygen species and antioxidants in seed biology. Seed Science Research, 14: 93-107.

Bayat, H., Alirezaie, M., Neamati, H. and Saadabad, A. 2013. Effect of silicon on growth and ornamental traits of salt-stressed calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Journal of Ornamental Plants, 4: 207-214.

Bielach, A., Hrtyan, M. and Tognetti, V.B. 2017. Plants under stress: Involvement of auxin and cytokinin. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18 (7): 1427-1456.

Chakrabarti, N. and Mukherji, S. 2003. Alleviation of NaCl stress by pretreatment with phytohormones in Vigna radiata. Biologia Plantarum, 46: 589-59.

Crane, T.A., Roncoli, C. and Hoogenboom, G. 2011. Adaptation to climate change and climate variability: The importance of understanding agriculture as performance. WageningenJournal of Life Sciences, 57: 179-185.

Fahad, S., Hussain, S., Bano, A., Saud, S., Hassan, S., Shan, D., Khan, F.A., Khan, F., Chen, Y., Wu, C., Tabassum, M.A., Chun, M.X., Afzal, M., Jan, A., Jan, M.T. and Huang, J. 2015. Potential role of phytohormones and plant growthpromoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses: Consequences for changing environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22: 4907-4921.

Ferrante, A., Trivellini, A., Malorgio, F., Carmassi, G. and Vernieri, P. 2011. Effect of seawater aerosol on leaves of six plant species potentially useful for ornamental purposes in coastal areas. Scientia Horticulturae, 128: 332-341.

Foyer, C.H., Lopez-Delgado, H., Dat, J.F. and Scott, I.M. 1997. Hydrogen peroxide and glutathione associated mechanisms of acclamatory stress tolerance and signaling. Plant Physiology, 100: 241–254.

Geetha, T. and Murgan, N. 2017. Plant growth regulators in mulberry. Annual Research and Review in Biology, 13: 1-11.

Ghanem, M.E., Albacete, A., Smigocki, A.C., Fre´bort, I., Pospý´silova, H., Martý´nez-Andu´jar, C., Acosta, M., Sa´nchez-Bravo, J., Lutts, S., Dodd, I.C. and Perez-Alfocea, F. 2011. Root synthesized cytokinins improve shoot growth and fruit yield in salinized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62: 125-140.

Ghorbani Javid, M., Sorooshzadeh Moradi, F., Modarres Sanavy, S.A.M. and Allahdadi, I. 2011. The role of phytohormones in alleviating salt stress in crop plants. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5:726-734.

Giannopolitis, C.N. and Ries, S.K. 1997. Superoxide dismutases: I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiology, 59 (2): 309-314.

Hernandez, J.A., Olmos, E., Corpas, F.J., Sevilla, F. and Del Rio, L.A. 1995. Effect of NaCl stress on H2O2 metabolism in rice leaves. Plant Science, 105: 151-167.

Hoque, M.A., Banu, M.N.A., Nakamura, Y., Shimoishi, Y. and Murata, Y. 2008. Proline and glycinebetaine enhance antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems and reduce NaCl-induced damage in cultured tobacco cells. Journal of Plant Physiology, 165 (8): 813-824.

Jiang, Q.Y., Zhuo, F., Long, S.H., Zhao, H.D., Yang, D.J. and Ye, Z.H. 2016. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce Cd uptake and alleviate Cd toxicity of Lonicera japonica grown in Cd-added soils? Scientific Reports, 6: 21805-21814.

Jouyban, Z.A. 2012. The effects of salt stress on plant growth. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2: 7-10.

Kazan, K. 2013. Auxin and the integration of environmental signals into plant root development. Annals of Botany, 112: 1655-1665.

Khan, M.I., Fatma, M., Per, T.S., Anjum, N.A. and Khan, N.A. 2015. Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants. Journal of Plant Sciences, 6 (462): 1-17.

Khan, N.A., Syeed, S., Masood, A., Nazar, R. and Iqbal, N. 2010. Application of salicylic acid increases contents of nutrients and antioxidative metabolism in mungbean and alleviates adverse effects of salinity stress. International Journal of Plant Biology, 1: 1-8.

Kirkham, M.B., Gardner, W.R. and Gerloff, G.C. 1972. Stomatal conductance of differentially salinized plants. Plant Physiology, 49: 345-347.

Kumar, V., Wani, S.H., Suprasanna, P. and Phan Tran, L. 2018. Targeting sensory, transport and signaling. In: Mechanisms salinity responses and tolerance in plants. 1th eds. Springer International Publishing. Switzerland, pp: 1-39.

Lichtenthaler, H. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods of Enzymology, 148: 350-382.

Matysik, J., Alia, A., Bhalu, B. and Mohanty, P. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Current Science, 82: 525–532.

Meena, K.K., Sorty, A.M., Bitla, U.M., Choudhary, K., Gupta, P., Pareek, A., Singh, D.P., Prabha, R., Sahu, P.K., Gupta, V.K., Singh, H.B., Krishanani, K.K. and Minhas, P.S. 2017. Abiotic stress responses and microbe-mediated mitigation in plants: The Omics strategies. Front Plant Science, 8: 172-197.

Miransaria, M. and Smith, D.L. 2014. Plant hormones and seed germination. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 99: 110–121.

Mok, D.W. and Mok, M.C. 2001. Cytokinin metabolism and action. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 52: 89-118.

Nagavi, S.S.M., Ansari, R. and Khanzada, A.N. 1982. Response of salt-stressed wheat seedlings to kinetin. Plant Science Letters, 26: 279-283.

Parida, A.K. and Das, A.B. 2005. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: A review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 60: 324-349.

Pessarakli, M. and Szabolcs, I. 2010. Soil salinity and sodicity as particular plant/crop stress factors. In: Handbook of plant and crop stress. 3rd Edition, Revised and Expanded (M. Pessarakli, Ed.), CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Publishing Group, Florida, pp. 3-21.

Poor, P., Gemes, K., Horvath, F., Szepesi, A., Simon, M.L. and Tari, I. 2011. Salicylic acid treatment via the rooting medium interferes with stomatal response, CO2 fixation rate and carbohydrate metabolism in tomato, and decreases harmful effects of subsequent salt stress. Plant Biology, 13: 105-114.

Pospisilova, J., Vagner, M., Malbeck, J., Travnickova, A. and Batkova, P. 2005. Interactions between abscisic acid and cytokinins during water stress and subsequent rehydration. Biological Plant, 49: 533-540.

Rajaravindran, M. and Natarajan, S. 2012. Effects of salinity stress on growth and antioxidant enzymes of the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. International Journal of Research in Plant Science, 2: 23-28.

Rajasekaran, L.R., Stiles, A. and Caldwell, C. 2002. Stand establishment in processing carrots: Effects of various temperature regimes on germination and the role of salicylates in promoting germination at low temperature.  Journal of Plant Science, 82: 443-450.

Rao, M.K.V., Raghavendra, A.S. and Janardhan, R.K. 2006. Physiology and molecular biology of stress tolerance in plants. Published by Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Ryu, H. and Cho, Y.G. 2015. Plant hormones in salt stress tolerance. Journal of Plant Biology, 58: 147-155.

Sairam, R.K., Rao, K.V. and Srivastava, G.C. 2002. Differential response of wheat genotypes to long-term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress. Antioxidant active and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science, 163: 1037-1046.

Sakhabutdinova, A.R., Fatkhutdinova, D.R., Bezrukova, M.V. and Shakirova, F.M. 2003. Salicylic acid prevents the damaging action of stress factors on wheat plants. BulgarianJournal of Plant Physiology,13: 314-319.

Saleh, B. 2013. Water status and protein pattern changes towards salt stress in cotton. Journal of Stress Physiology and Biochemistry, 9: 113-123.

Sampath Kumar, I., Ramgopal Rao, S. and Vardhini, B.V. 2015. Role of phytohormones during salt stress tolerance in plants. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 9: 334-343.

Sayyed, A., Gul, H., Ullah, Z. and Hamayun, M. 2014. Effect of salt stress on growth of Tagetes erecta L.   Pakhtunkhwa Journal of Life Science,2: 96-106.

Shahmoradi, H. and Naderi, D. 2018. Improving effects of salicylic acid on morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of salt-imposed winter jasmine. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 5 (2): 219-230.

Shen, B., Jensen, R.G. and Bohnert, H.J. 1997. Mannitol protects against oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. Plant Physiology, 115: 527-532.

Sivritepe, N., Sivritepe, H.O. and Eris, A. 2003.The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in melon seedlings grown under saline conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 97: 229-237.

Srivastava, T.P., Gupta, S.C., Lal, P., Muralia, P.N. and Kumar, A. 1988. Effect of salt stress on physiological and biochemical parameters of wheat.  Annals of Arid Zone, 27: 197-204.

Taghavi, M. and Hasani, S. 2012. Occurrence of Psedomonas savastanoi the causal agent of winter jasmin gall in Iran. Iran Agricultural Research,31 (1): 39-48.

Tissa, S., Darren, D., Eric, B. and Kinsley, D. 2000. Acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid induce multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomato plants. Plant Growth Regulation, 30: 157-161.

Vahdati, N., Tehranifar, A., Neamati, S.H. and Selahvarzi, Y. 2012. Physiological and morphological responses of white clover (Trifolium repens) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) plants to salinity stress. Journal of Ornamental Plants, 2: 233-241.

Vernieri, P., Trivellini, A., Malorgio, F. and Serra, G. 2010. Effect of salt spray on six ornamental species. Acta Horticulturae, 881: 463-468.

Xu, X.M., Ye, H.C. and Li, G.F. 2000. Progress in research of plant tolerance to saline stress. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 6 (4): 379-387.