Foliar Application of Anti-frost Solution Influences Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Bougainvillea, Canna and Petunia

Document Type: Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Ornamental Plants Research Centre, Horticultural Science ResearchInstitute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mahallat, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Horticulture Science, Shiraz University, Iran.

3 Ornamental Plants Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mahallat, Iran


Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in cold conditions, usually overnight. If the temperature drops far enough for the plant cells to freeze, non hardy plants will die. Therefore, a research was laid out to study the influence of an anti-frost solution on growth, flowers quality and biochemical parameters of ornamental plants. The anti-frost solution was applied as foliar sprays in different concentration of T0: 0 (mg L-1) (only water) as control, T1: 250 (mg L-1), T2: 500 (mg L-1), T3: 1000 (mg L-1), T4: 1500 (mg L-1), T5: 2000 (mg L-1) ‘ferti-fros’, on bougainvillea (Bougainvillea glabra(, canna (Canna indica) and petunia (Petunia axillaris). Results showed that flowering percentage and flowering duration in the treated plants was more than control. Highest flowering percentage and flowering duration was in T5 (81.22%) and (13.86 days), respectively. By increasing concentration of anti-frost solution, damaging percentage was decreased. Lowest damaging percentage was in T5 (69.77%). Total chlorophyll enhanced with increasing concentration of anti-frost solution. Highest amount of total chlorophyll belonged to T5 (50.80 mg g-1). By comparing effect of different treatments on amount of prolineit was shown that control had highest amount of proline (0.56 μM g-1). With increasing concentration of anti-frost, amount of proline was decreased T5 (0.08 μmol g-1).Electrical conductivity was affected by different treatments in all flowers. Highest amount of electrical conductivity recorded for control (9.0 mS g-1 cm-1) and lowest amount was in T5 (2.26 mS g-1 cm-1). Difference of all the treatments was significant at 0.1% level of significance.

Graphical Abstract

Foliar Application of Anti-frost Solution Influences Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in <i>Bougainvillea</i>, <i>Canna</i> and <i>Petunia</i>


  • New anti frost solution was introduced to the society, in order to access the frost tolerance of ornamental plants.
  • Amount of chlorophyll enhanced with increasing concentration of Anti-frost solution.
  • With increasing amount of Anti-frost solution, amount of proline was decreased.
  • Lowest amount of electrolyte leakage was observed at 2000 ppm concentration of anti frost solution.
  • Spraying anti frost solution on Bougainvillea glabra, Canna indica and Petunia axillaris, increased their cold hardiness and improved their biochemical parameters.


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