Influence of Defoliate Pathotype of Verticillium dahliae on Some Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam)

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Plant protection, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

Abstract

Verticillium dahliae Kleb.is a soilborne pathogen that cause vascular wilt in chrysanthemumplant (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam). The objective of this research was to study the levels of some organic solutes, such as total protein, total soluble sugars, starch and proline, relative water content, RNA level, malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents in leaves of chrysanthemuminoculated with V. dahliae. Changes of these parameters were measured on 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days after inoculation by spectrophotometric analysis. No changes in relative water content, RNA, and protein levels and a slight decrease in chlorophyll level were detected within infected leaf tissue before the appearance of visible wilt. The decrease in relative water content coincided with a sharp build up of proline and total soluble sugars in leaves. The leaf starch and protein levels gradually declined in both healthy and infected plants during the time course of the experiment. However, the decrease was more pronounced in infected plants from the third week after inoculation. A high negative correlation was observed between total soluble sugars and starch contents in leaves of diseased plants (r= 0.764, P<0.001). Changes in malondialdehyde and H2O2 concentration occurred in infected plants between 30-40 days after inoculation, while they did not change in the leaves of control plants. These data suggest the psssible role of senescence during the development of Verticillium wilt syndrome in chrysanthemum.

Graphical Abstract

Influence of Defoliate Pathotype of Verticillium dahliae on Some Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam)

Highlights

  • Senescence associated with the development of Verticillium wilt syndrome in chrysanthemum.
  • Changes in proline, total soluble sugars, starch, total soluble protein levels, and RNA concentration in leaves of chrysanthemum plants caused by the infection with V. dahliae clearly matched with appearance of wilt symptoms.
  • Changes in malondialdehyde indicates lipid peroxidation, injury to the cell membrane, and organs injury.

Keywords


Alexander, S.J. and Hall, R. 1974. Verticillium wilt of chrysanthemum: Anatomical observations on colonization of roots, stem, and leaves. Canadian Journal of Botany, 52:783-789.

Avis, T.J., Michaud, M. and Tweddell, R.J. 2007. Role of lipid composition and lipid peroxidation in the sensitivity of fungal plant pathogens to aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73:2820-2824.

Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P. and Teare, I.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39: 205- 207.

 Bejarano-Alcázar, J., Blanco-López, M.A., Melero-Vara, J.M. and Jiménez-Díaz, R.M. 1996. Etiology, importance, and distribution of Verticillium of cotton in southern Spain. Plant Disease,80:1233-1238.

Bradford, M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry,72:248-54.

Dallagnol, L.J., Rodrigues, F.A., DaMatta, F.M., Mielli, M.V.B. and Pereira, S.C. 2011. Deficiency in silicon uptake affects cytological, physiological, and biochemical events in the rice-Bipolaris oryzae interaction. Phytopathology, 101:92-104.

Fan, Q., Song, A., Jiang, J., Zhang, T., Sun, H., Wang, Y., Chen, S. and Chen, F. 2016. CmWRKY1 enhances the dehydration tolerance of chrysanthemum through the regulation of ABA-associated genes. PLoS ONE, 11:e0150572.

Fradin, E.F. and Thomma, B.P.H.J. 2006. Physiology and molecular aspects of Verticillium wilt diseases caused by V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum. Molecular Plant Pathology,7:71-86.

Fletcher, R.A. and Osborne, D.J. 1965. Gibberellin as a regulator of protein and ribonucleic acid synthesis during senescence in leaf cells of Taraxacum officinale.Canadian Journal of Botany, 44:739-745.

Fumis, T.F. and Pedras, J.F. 2002. Variation in levels of proline, diamine and polyamines in wheat cultivars under drought stress. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 37:449-459.

Ganji Arjenaki, F., Jabbari, R. and Morshedi, A. 2012. Evaluation of drought stress on relative water content, chlorophyll content and mineral elements of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties'. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4:726-72.

Goicoechea, N., Aguirreolea, J., Cenoz, S. and Garca-Mina, J.M. 2000. Verticillium dahliae modifies the concentrations of proline, soluble sugars, starch, soluble protein and abscisic acid in pepper plants. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106:19-25.

Hajipour, H. and Jabbarzadeh, Z. 2015. Effect of foliar application of silicon on physiological responses of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflorum) at two different growth stages. Journal of Ornamental Plants, 6:39-47.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahar, K., Alam, M.M., Roychowdhury, R. and Fujita, M. 2013. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance in plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14:9643-9684.

Irigoyen, J.J., Emerich, D.W. and Sanchez, D.M. 1992. Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants. Physiology Plants,84:55-60.

Jamal, A., Shahid, M.N., Aftab, B., Rashid, B., Sarwar, M., Mohamed, B., Hassan, S. and Husnain, T. 2014. Water stress mediated changes in morphology and physiology of Gossypium arboreum (var FDH-786). Journal of Plant Sciences, 2:179-186.

Jarvis, S.C., and Walker, F.R.L. 1993. Simultaneous, rapid, pectrophotometric, determination of total starch, amylose and amylopectin. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 63: 53-57.

Koffler, B.E., Luschin-Ebengreuth, N., Stabentheiner, E., Muller, M. and Zechmann, B. 2014. Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Science, 227:133-144.

Land, C.J.L., Lawrence, K.S. and Meyer, B. 2017. Cultivar, irrigation, and soil contribution to the enhancement of Verticillium wilt disease in cotton. Crop Protection, 96: 1-6.

Mahajan, S. and Tuteja, N. 2005. Cold, salinity and drought stresses: An overview. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 444:139-158.

Mensha, J.K., Obadoni, B.O., Eroutor, P.G. and Onome, I.F. 2006. Simulated flooding and drought effects on germination, growth and yield parameters of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). African Journal of Biotechnology, 5:1249-1253.

Mohamed, H., EL-Hady, A.A., Mansour, M. and El-Samawaty, A.E. 2012. Association of oxidative stress components with resistance to flax powdery mildew. Tropical Plant Pathology, 37:386-392.

Molassiotis, A. and Fotopoulos, V. 2011. Oxidative and nitrosative signaling in plants: Two branches in the same tree? Plant Signaling and Behavior, 6:210-214.

Nayyar, H. and Gupta, D. 2006. Differential sensitivity of C3 and C4 plants to water deficit stress: Association with oxidative stress and antioxidants. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 58:106-113.

Pascual, I., Azcona, I., Morales, F., Aguirreolea, J. and Sanchez-Dıaz, M. 2009. Growth, yield and physiology of Verticillium-inoculated pepper plants treated with ATAD and composted sewage sludge. Plant Soil, 319:291-306.

 

Pascual, I., Azcona, I., Morales, F., Aguirreolea, J. and Sanchez-Diaz, M. 2010. Photosynthetic response of pepper plants to wilt induced by Verticillium dahliae and soil water deficit'. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167:701-708.

Pilon, C., Oosterhuis, D.M., Ritchie, G. and Oliveira, E.A. 2013. Effect of drought in the osmotic adjustment of cotton plants. Summaries of Arkansas Cotton Research, 14:60-65.

Pirzad, A., Shakiba, M.R., Zehtab-Salmasi, S., Mohammadi, S.A., Darvishzadeh, R. and Samadi, A. 2011. Effect of water stress on leaf relative water content, chlorophyll, proline and soluble carbohydrates in Matricaria chamomilla L. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5:2483-2488.

Pomar, F., Novo, M., Bernal, M.A., Merino, F. and Barce, A.R. 2004. Changes in stem lignins (monomer composition and crosslinking) and peroxidase are related with the maintenance of leaf photosynthetic integrity during Verticillium wilt in Capsicum annuum. New Phytologist,163:111-123.

Popham, P.L. and Novacky, A. 1990. Use of dimethylsulfoxide to detect hydroxyl radical during bacteria-induced hypersensitive reaction. Plant Physiology, 96:1157-1160.

Sanei, S.J., Waliyar, F., Razavi, S.E. and Okhovvat, S.M. 2008. Vegetative compatibility, host range and pathogenicity of Verticillium dahliae isolates in Iran. International Journal of Plant Production, 2:37-45.

Sapkota, R., Olesen, M.H., Deleuran, L.C., Boelt, B. and Nicolaisen, M. 2016. Effect of Verticillium dahliae soil inoculum levels on spinach seed infection. Plant Disease, 100: 1564-1570.

Schnathorst, W.C. 1969. A severe form of Verticillium albo-atrum in Gossypium barbadense in Peru. Plant Disease Reporter, 53: 145-150.

Singh, P.K. and Kumar, V. 2014. Fusarium wilt of chrysanthemum-problems and prospects.Plant Pathology and Quarantine,4:33-42.

Tripathy, B.C. and Oelmüller, R. 2012. Reactive oxygen species generation and signaling in plants. Plant Signal Behavior, 7: 1621-1633.

Turner, N.C. 1981. Techniques and experimental approaches for the measurement of plant water stress. Plant Soil, 58:339-366.

Tzeng, D.D., Wakeman, R.J. and DeVay, J.E. 1985. Relationships among Verticillium wilt development, leaf water potential, phenology, and lint yield in cotton. PhysiologicalPlant Pathology, 26:73-81.

Uarrota, V.G., Moresco, R., Schmidt, E.C., Bouzon, Z.L., Nunes, E.C., Neubert, E.O., Peruch, L.M. and Maraschin, M. 2016. The role of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and polysaccharides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots under postharvest physiological deterioration. Food Chemistry, 197: 737-746.

Velikova, V., Yordancv, I. and Edreva, A. 2000. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants. Protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Science, 151: 59-66.

Weber, H., Chételat, A., Reymond, P. and Farmer, E.E. 2004. Selective and powerful stress gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to malondialdehyde. The Plant Journal, 37: 877-888.

Wheeler, D.L. and Johnson, D.A. 2016. Verticillium dahliae infects, alter plant biomass, and produces inoculums on rotation crops. Phytopathology, 106:602-613.

Yang, C., Guo, W., Li, G., Gao, F., Lin, S. and Zhang, T. 2010. QTLs mapping for Verticillium wilt resistance at seedling and maturity stages in Gossypium barbadense L. Plant Science, 174:290-298.

Zahed Chakovari, S., Enteshari, Sh. and Qasimov, N. 2016. Effect of salinity stress on biochemical parameters and growth of borage (Borago officinalis L.). Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology, 6:1673-1685.

Zokaee-Khosroshahi, M., Esna-Ashari, M., Ershadi, A. and Imani, A. 2014. Morphological changes in response to drought stress in cultivated and wild almond species. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology,1: 79-92.