Growth and Physiology of Chrysanthemum morifolium Modified by the Supplementations of Various Fertilizers

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran.

2 Department of Horticulture, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran


To evaluate the effectiveness of various organic or inorganic fertilizers on the growth and physiology of Chrysanthemum morifolium (an important ornamental plant) the current research was conducted in a completely randomized design. Seedlings were treated with vermicompost (0 and 40% w/w of soil), nano-chelated zinc (nano-Zn) (0 and 0.1% (w/v)) or ZnSO4 (0 and 0.2% (w/v). Sprays of nano-Zn or ZnSO4 were done three times with two week intervals. In comparison to control, the applied fertilizers significantly promoted growth rates and biomass accumulations as indicated by the significantly higher amounts leaf area as well as leaf fresh and dry mass in the treated plants by approximately 41%, 39%, and 28%, respectively. The simultaneous applications of nano Zn and vermicompost was the most effective supplementation to improve plant growth rate. The combined applications of mineral and biological applied fertilizers led to significant increases in the contents of photosynthetic pigments about 53%. Except for individual application of ZnSO4, the other applied treatments, especially the combined ones, resulted in significant increases in the contents of leaf proline (mean 51%), compared to control. Similarly, the simultaneous applications of supplements increased the root proline by 82%. The highest amounts of leaf soluble phenols were found in nano Zn-V group (3.3 fold higher than control). However, in root tissues only the considerable increases caused by the vermicompost treatment (approximately 49%). In conclusions, the simultaneous soil supplementations with the biological fertilizers and foliar applications of nano-fertilizers may be regarded as a suitable eco-friendly way to improve plant metabolism and growth rates. 

Graphical Abstract

Growth and Physiology of Chrysanthemum morifolium Modified by the Supplementations of Various Fertilizers


  • Comparative data on different mineral and organic fertilizers is provided.
  • Nano-chelated zinc (nZn) was much more effective than the bulk form.
  • Vermicompost and nZn had a high efficiency to improve plant growth and physiology.
  • Biomass, proline, phenols, and photosynthesis were modified by the fertilizers.


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