The Feasibility Study on the Prediction of Ploidy Levels Base on Pollen Dimensions in Rosa

Document Type: Original Article


1 PhD Student, Department of Horticulture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Ornamental Plants, Research Center for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Tissue and Cell Culture, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O.Box. 31535-1897, Karaj, Iran.


Ploidy level is one of important factors for plant breeders; therefore models that can predict it are very practical. To estimate of ploidy levels in some species, hybrids and cultivars of Rosa, dimensions of over 500 pollens include pollen length, width and area measured at ABRII. The calculations were carried out in several stages. First, Ploidy levels were regressed with pollen dimensions, after that, pollen area was regressed with pollen length and width. Finally the best models from previous step were tested to estimate of pollen level. In the present study, although a highly positive correlation (r2 ≥0.80, except for 2x) was obtained between pollen length and pollen area, but to predict of ploidy level, the correlation between it and pollen demotions was very weak (r2 ≥0.24). Results of test the best models (with highest r2 and lowest SES) for estimating of ploidy level, despite could be used, but because of the strong correlation among them, were not reliable.

Graphical Abstract

The Feasibility Study on the Prediction of Ploidy Levels Base on Pollen Dimensions in Rosa


There is a weak correlation between ploidy level and pollen dimensions in the five species, hybrids and cultivars of Rosa.

Pollen area in Rosa of di, tri, tetra, panta and hexaploid is predictable with only measurement of one variable (pollen length).

Using power model (equation) obtained from 3x, 4x, 5x and 6x, just in Rosa of diploid (here, Rosa persica), can estimate ploidy level but it is not so reliable


Contreras, R.N., Ranney, T.G. and Tallury, S.P. 2007. Reproductive behavior of diploid and allotetraploid Rhododendron L. ‘Fragrant Affinity’. HortScience, 42: 31-34.

Darlington, C.D. and Wylie, A.P. 1955. Chromosome atlas of flowering plants. (Ed.). London: Allen and Unwin.

Jacob, Y. and Pierret, V. 2000. Pollen size and ploidy level in the genus Rosa. Acta Horticulturae, 508: 289-292.

Jacob, Y., Teyssier, C., Reynders-Aloisi, S. and Brown, S.C. 1996. Use of flow cytometry for the rapid determination of ploidy level in the genus Rosa. Acta Horticulturae, 424: 273-278.

Johansen, B. and von Bothmer, R. 1994. Pollen size in Hordeum L.: Correlation between size, ploidy level and breeding system. Sexual Plant Reproduction, 7(5):259-263.

Joly, S., Starr, J.R., Lewis, W.H. and Bruneau, A. 2006. Polyploid and hybrid evolution in roses east of the Rocky Mountains. American Journal of Botany, 93: 412-425.

Jones, J.R., Ranney, T.J. and Lynch, N.P. 2007. Ploidy levels and relative genome sizes of diverse species, hybrids, and cultivars of Rhododendron. Journal American Rhododendron Society, 3: 220-227.

Kermani, M.J., Sarasan, V., Roberts, A.V., Yokoya, A., Wentworth, J. and Sieber, V.K. 2003. Oryzalin-induced chromosome doubling in Rosa and its effects on plant morphology and pollen viability. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 107: 1195-1200.

Leus, L. 2005. Resistance breeding for powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa) and black spot (Diplocarpon rosae) in roses. Ph.D. Thesis, Ghent University, Belgium, 148 pp.

Levin, D.A. 2002. The role of chromosomal change in plant evolution. Oxford Press, NY, 244 pp.

Mishra, M.K. 1997. Stomatal characteristics at different ploidy levels in Coffea L. Annals of Botany, 80: 689-692.

Padoan, D., Mossad, A., Chiancone, B., Germana, M.A. and Sha Valli Khan, P.S. 2013. Ploidy levels in Citrus clementine affects leaf morphology, stomatal density and water content theoretical and experimental. Plant Physiology, 25(4): 283-290.

Ranney, T.G. 2006. Polyploidy: From evolution to new plant development. Proceedings International Plant Propagators Society, 56: 137-142.

Semeniuk, P. and Arisumi, T. 1968. Colchicine-induced tetraploid and cytochimeral roses. Botanical Gazette, 129: 190-193.

Smulders, M.J.M., Arens, P., Koning-Boucoiran, C.F.S., Gitonga, V.W., Krens, F.A., Atanassov, A., Atanassov, I., Rusanov,  K.E., Bendahmane, M., Dubois, A.,  Raymond, O., Caissard, J.C., Baudino, S., Crespel, L., Gudin, S., Ricci, S.C., Kovatcheva, N., van Huylenbroeck, J., Leus, L., Wissemann, V.,  Zimmermann, H., Hensen, I., Werlemark, G., and Nybom, H. 2011. Rosa in Kole C (ed.) wild crop relatives: Genomic and breeding resources plantation and ornamental crops. Springer, Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York, pp, 243-276.

Stanley, R.G. and Linskens, H.F. 1974. Pollen: Biochemistry, management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 307 pp.

Yokoya, K., Roberts, A.V., Mottley, J., Lewis, R. and Brandham, P.E. 2000. Nulear DNA amounts in roses. Annals of Botany, 85: 557-561.

Zlesak, D.C. 2009. Pollen diameter and guard cell length as predictors of ploidy in diverse rose cultivars, species, and breeding lines. In: Zlesak DC (Ed) Roses. Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology, 3(Special Issue 1), 53-70.

 Zlesak, D.C., Thill, C.A. and Anderson, N.O. 2005. Trifluralin-mediated polyploidization of Rosa chinensis Minima (Sims) Voss seedlings. Euphytica, 141: 281-290.