A Comparison of Morphological Traits in Three Ornamental Species of Cyclamen, Primula and Viola in Nature (Forest Lands) with Their Cultured Samples in West Mazandaran Province

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Ms Student of Ornamental Plants, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.

2 Department of Horticulture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.

Abstract

The attitude of policymakers and designers of green space is increasing toward to native-ornamental species to plant in the urban space because of their adaptation and resistance against severe weather and ecological conditions which can result in cost minimization and long-term survival in green spaces. Hence, the current study was carried out in the west of Mazandaran Province on three wild and domestic species, including Cyclamen, Primula, and Viola. Morphological traits were the appearance of blossom, length and width of leaf, pedicel, petiolate, and flower. Homogeneity of variance was done by Levene test and two groups, including wild and domestic species, were also compared by independent t-test. Results showed that all measured traits were higher in the domestic species than in wild species except wild species of Viola which had higher length, width, and area than the domestic one. All domestic species showed longer flowering period than wild ones. Two species of domestic and wild Primula enable to be green after flowering period, but domestic Viola and wild Cyclamen disappeared after the period. Moreover, wild Viola and domestic Cyclamen survived after flowering finalization

Graphical Abstract

A Comparison of Morphological Traits in Three Ornamental Species of <i>Cyclamen</i>, <i>Primula</i> and <i>Viola</i> in Nature (Forest Lands) with Their Cultured Samples in West Mazandaran Province

Highlights

The studied wild plants (Cyclamen, Primula, and Viola )compared to the ornamental species, because withstanding the very harsh environmental conditions and the stay-green period, can be good representatives for introducing to be used in the urban forest. Also using wild species cause's reduction in maintenance costs, such as irrigation, fertilization, soil composition, and pesticides.

Keywords


Allred Kelly, W. 1998. Ornamental grasses for New Mexico. New Mexico State University, Cooperative Extension Service. Series: Circular, 537.

Andini, R., Yoshida, S. and Yoshida, Y. 2013. Amaranthus genetic resources in Indonesia: Morphological and protein content assessment in comparison with worldwide amaranthus. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60: 2115 – 2128.

Anonymous, 2006. Forestry plan district 7 of safaroud state department of forests and rangelands. Western Mazandaran Department of Natural Resources. pp 215-224.

Asri, Y. 1999. Vegetation of the orumieh lake salt marshes. Iranian Research Institute of Forest and Rengelands, 191: 222 p.

Backer, H.G. 1974. The evolution of weeds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 5: 1-24.

Badertscher, K.B. and Leslie, A.A. 2006. Selection and care of ornamental grasses for northern Nevada. Nevada Cooperative Extension. 6 (83).

Celep, F., Kahraman, A. and Atalay, Z. 2014. Morphology, anatomy, palynology, mericarp and trichome micromorphology of the rediscovered Turkish endemic Salviaquezelii (Lamiaceae) and their taxonomic implications. Plant Systematics and Evolution. DOI 10.1007/s00606-014-1020-1.

Dogan, B., Behçet, L., Duran, A. and Avlamaz, D. 2015. Psephellus vanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from East Turkey. PhytoKeys, 48: 11-19.

Ejtehadi, H., Emadzadeh, Kh., Joharchi, M.R. and Meamariani, F. 2008. Study and investigation of vegetation floristic and ecological of the Frisi. Research Project. Institute of Plant Sciences. Feredowsi University of Mashhad.

Khazaeipour, H. 1996. Location and design of an equipped forest park site in Safaroud forest of Ramsar. M.S. Thesis, Tehran University, pp 18-41.

Mozaffarian, V. 2008. Flora of Iran (Compositae: Anthemideae & Echinopeae). Publication of Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran.

Namaganda, M., Lye, K.A., Friebe, B. and Heun, M. 2006. AFLP-based differentiation of tropical African Festuca species compared to the European Festuca complex. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 113: 1529-1538.

Richard, C.L., Pennings, S.C. and Donovan, L.A. 2005. Habitat range and phenotypic variation in salt marsh plants. Plant Ecology, 176 (2): 263-273.

Scheepens, J.F., Kuss, P. and Stocklin, J. 2011. Differentiation in morphology and flowering phenology between two Campanula thyrsoides L. subspecies. Alpine Botany, 121: 37-47.

Sultan, S.E. 2001. Phenotypic plasticity for fitness components in Polygonum species of contrasting ecological breadth. Ecology, 82: 328-343.

Tatyana, V., Shulkina Gaskin, J.F. and Eddie, W.M.M. 2003. Morphological studies toward an improved classification of Campanulaceae Str. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 90: 576-591.

Wagenitz, G. 1980. Centaurea L. In: Rechinger K.H. (Ed.) Flora Iranica, Vol. 139b. Akademische Druck- und Verlanglanstalt, Wien, 401-402.

Wilson, C.R. 2014. Ornamental grasses. Colorado State University Extension Horticulture Agent, 7: 232.

Yavari, A.R., Nazeri, V., Sefidkon, F. and Hassani, M.E. 2011. Study on some ecological factors, morphological traits, ploidy levels and essential oil composition of Thymus pubescens Boiss. & Kotschy ex Celak in two natural regions of East Azerbaijan province. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26(4): 500-512.

Zarei, G.h.R., Asadi, M. and Masoumi, A.A. 2008. An introduction of flora, biological form, habitat and geographical distribution of Abarkouh desert plants of Yazd County. Research and Construction, 81: 21-38.