A Comparison of Morphological Traits in Three Ornamental Species of Cyclamen, Primula and Viola in Nature (Forest Lands) with Their Cultured Samples in West Mazandaran Province

Document Type: Original Article


1 Ms Student of Ornamental Plants, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.

2 Department of Horticulture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.


The attitude of policymakers and designers of green space is increasing toward to native-ornamental species to plant in the urban space because of their adaptation and resistance against severe weather and ecological conditions which can result in cost minimization and long-term survival in green spaces. Hence, the current study was carried out in the west of Mazandaran Province on three wild and domestic species, including Cyclamen, Primula, and Viola. Morphological traits were the appearance of blossom, length and width of leaf, pedicel, petiolate, and flower. Homogeneity of variance was done by Levene test and two groups, including wild and domestic species, were also compared by independent t-test. Results showed that all measured traits were higher in the domestic species than in wild species except wild species of Viola which had higher length, width, and area than the domestic one. All domestic species showed longer flowering period than wild ones. Two species of domestic and wild Primula enable to be green after flowering period, but domestic Viola and wild Cyclamen disappeared after the period. Moreover, wild Viola and domestic Cyclamen survived after flowering finalization

Graphical Abstract

A Comparison of Morphological Traits in Three Ornamental Species of <i>Cyclamen</i>, <i>Primula</i> and <i>Viola</i> in Nature (Forest Lands) with Their Cultured Samples in West Mazandaran Province


The studied wild plants (Cyclamen, Primula, and Viola )compared to the ornamental species, because withstanding the very harsh environmental conditions and the stay-green period, can be good representatives for introducing to be used in the urban forest. Also using wild species cause's reduction in maintenance costs, such as irrigation, fertilization, soil composition, and pesticides.


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