Effect of Foliar Application of Silicon on Physiological Responses of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflorum) at Two Different Growth Stages

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Urmia University, P.O. Box 165, Iran

Abstract

To evaluate the physiological responses of chrysanthemum to silicon spray in non-stress conditions, this study was performed in two separate experiments (at 4 to 5 and 8 to 12-leaf stages) as a factorial randomized completely design with two factors: silicon source (in two levels: sodium silicate and calcium silicate) and the concentration of silicate at five levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1) in cocopeat- perlite (1:1 v/v) medium in four replications and two observations. Physiological traits such as catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content were measured. The results showed that the foliar spray of sodium and calcium silicate increased the activity of CAT, APX and GPX enzymes and MDA, but proline and H2O2 were decreased. Generally, in the stage of 8-12 leaves, sodium silicate at high concentrations (150 and 200 mg L-1) was the most effective in increasing antioxidant enzymes activity and reducing proline, MDA and H2O2. At 4-5 leaf stage sodium silicate at 100 mg L-1 increased antioxidant enzymes activity and calcium silicate at 150 mg L-1 reduced proline, MDA and H2O2

Keywords


Aebi, H. 1984. Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105: 121-126.

Ahmad, I. and Hellebust, A. 1988. The relationship between inorganic nitrogen metabolism and proline accumulation in osmoregulatory responses of two euryhaline microalgae. Plant Physiology, 88: 348-354.

Al-Aghbary, K., Zhu, Z. and Shi, Q. 2004. Influence of silicon supply on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato plants under salt stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 27(12): 2101-2115.

Bharwana, S.A., Ali, S., Farooq, M.A., Iqbal, N., Abbas, F. and Ahmad, M.S.A. 2013.  Alleviation of lead toxicity by silicon is related to elevated photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes suppressed lead uptake and oxidative stress in cotton. Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation, 4: 187-198.

Brigelius-Flohe, R. and Flohe, L. 2003. Is there a role of glutathione peroxidases in signaling and differentiation? Biofactors, 17: 93-102.

Epstein, E. 1999. Silicon. Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology. 50: 641-664.

Gang, L.U., Jian, W., Zhang, J., Zhou, Y. and Cao, J. 2008. Suppressive effects of silicon nutrient on phomopsis stem blight development in asparagus. HortScience, 43(3): 811-817.

Ghamsari, L., Keyhani, E. and Golkhoo, S. 2007. Kinetics properties of guaiacol peroxidase activity in Crocus sativus L. corm during rooting. Iranian Biomedical Journal, 1: 137-146.

Gharineh, M.H. and Karmollachaab, A. 2013. Effect of silicon on physiological characteristics wheat growth under water-deficit stress induced by PEG. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4 (7): 1543-1548.

Gunes, A., Pilbeam, D.J., Inala, A. and Cobana, S. 2008. Influence of silicon on sunflower cultivars under drought stress, I: growth, antioxidant mechanisms, and lipid peroxidation. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 39: 1885–1903.

Hsieh, T.H., Lee, J.T., Charng, Y.Y. and Chan, M.T. 2002. Tomato plants ectopically expressing Arabidopsis cbf1 show enhanced resistance to water deficit stress. Plant Physiology, 130: 618–626.

Kang, H.M. and Saltiveit, M.E. 2002. Chilling tolerance of maize, cucumber and rice seedling (leaves and roots) and differentially affected by salicylic acid. Physiologia Plantarum, 115: 577-579.

Karmollachaab, A., Bakhshandeh, A., Gharineh, M.H., Moradi Telavat, M.R. and Fatahi, G. 2013. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and grain yield of wheat under drought stress condition. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4 (1): 30-37.

Kaya, C., Tuna, L. and Higgs, D. 2006. Effect of silicon on plant growth and mineral nutrition of maize grown under water-stress conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29: 1469–1480.

Kazemi, M., Gholami, M., Asadi, M. and Aghdasi, S. 2012. Efficiency of silicon, nickel and acetylsalicylic acid reduced senescence and extended vase life of cut rose flowers. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 7: 590–595.

Khelifa, S., M’hamdi, M., Rejeb, H., Belbahri, L. and Souayeh, N. 2011. Relation between catalase activity, salt stress and urban environments in Citrus aurantium L. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 3(6): 186-189.

Kim, Y., Khan, A.L., Kim, D., Lee, S., Kim, K., Waqas, M., Jung, H., Shin, J., Kim, J. and Lee, I. 2014. Silicon mitigates heavy metal stress by regulating P-type heavy metal ATPases, Oryza sativa low silicon genes and endogenous phytohormones. Plant Biology, 14: 1-13.

 Liang, Y., Chen, Q., Liu, Q., Zhang, W. and Ding, R. 2003. Exogenous silicon (Si) increases antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid peroxidation in roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Journal of Plant Physiology, 160: 1157–1164.

 

Liang, Y.C., Sun, W.C., Zhu, Y.G. and Christile, P. 2007. Mechanisms of silicon mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Environmental Pollution, 147: 422–428.

Liang, Y.C., Zhenguo, S.Q. and Tongsheng, M. 1996. Effect of silicon on salinity tolerance of two barley genotypes. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 19: 173-183.

Li-Ping, B., Fang-Gong, S., Ti-Da, G. and Zhao-Hui, S. 2006. Effect of soil drought stress on leaf water status, membrane permeability and enzymatic antioxidant system of maize. Soil Science, 16: 326-332.

Miao, B., Han, X. and Zhang, W. 2010. The ameliorative effect of silicon on soybean seedlings grown in potassium-deficient medium. Annals of Botany, 105: 967–973.

Mittler, R. 2002. Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant Science, 7: 405–410.

Moghadam, A., Mohamadi, A., Ramezani, A., Mansurifar, S., Sadat Asilan, K., Moradi-Gahderijani, M. and Sadat Jamian, S. 2013. Application of silicon ameliorates salinity stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 6: 1367-1372.

Mohaghegh, P., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A.H., Shirvani, M., Sharifnabi, B. and Nili, N. 2011. Effect of silicon nutrition on oxidative stress induced by Phytophthora melonis infection in cucumber. The American Phytopathological Society, 95(4): 455-460.

Molassiotis, A., Sotiropoulos, T., Tanou, G., Diamantidis, G. and Therios, I. 2006. Boron-induced oxidative damage and antioxidant and nucleolytic responses in shoot tip cultures of apple rootstock (Malus domestica Borkh). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 56: 54–62. 

Moldes, C.A., Fontaode Lima, O., Camina, J.M., Kiriachek, G.S., Molas, M.L. and Tsai, S.M. 2013. Assessment of the effect of silicon on antioxidant enzymes in cotton plants by multivariate analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61(47): 11243-11249.

Muhammad, A.J. and Shaheed, A.I. 2012. Effects of salicylic acid and silicon on oxidative damage and antioxidant activity in mung bean cuttings under boron toxicity. Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences, 22: 335-348.

Mussa, H.R. 2006. Influence of exogenous application of silicon on physiological response of salt-stressed maize (Zea mays L.). Agriculture and Biology Journal, 2: 293-297.

Nakano, Y. and Asada, K. 1981. Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiology, 22(5): 867-880.

Paquin, R. and Lechasseur, P. 1979. Observation suruneméthode de dosage de la proline libredans les extraits de plantes. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57: 1851-1854.

Popham, P.L. and Novacky, A. 1990. Use of dimethylsulfoxide to detect hydroxyl radical during bacteria-induced hypersensitive reaction. Plant Physiology, 96: 1157-1160.

Rosa, S.B., Caverzan, A., Teixeira, F.K., Lazzarotto, F., Silveira, J.A.G., Ferreira-Silva, S.L., Shigeoka, S., Ishikawa, T., Tamoi, M., Miyagawa, Y., Takeda, T., Yabuta, Y. and Yoshimura, K. 2002. Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes. Journal of Experimental Botany, 35: 1305-1319.

Rubinowska, K., Pogroszewska, E., Laskowska, H., Szot, P., Zdybel, A., Stasiak, D. and Kozak, D. 2014. The subsequent effect of silicon on physiological and biochemical parameters of Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All. ‘Variegatum’ cut shoots. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 13(1): 167-178.

Tale Ahmad, S. and Haddad, R. 2011. Study of silicon effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and osmotic adjustment of wheat under drought stress. Czech Journal of Genetic and Plant Breeding, 47(1): 17-27.

 Tuna, A.L., Kaya, C., Higgs, D., Murillo-Amador, B., Aydemir, S. and Girgin, A.R. 2008. Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 62: 10–16.

Upadhyaya, A., Sankhla, D., Davis, T.D., Sankhla, N. and Smith, B.N. 1985. Effect of paclobutrazol on the activities of some enzymes of activated oxygen metabolism and lipid peroxidation in senescing soybean leaves. Journal of Plant Physiology, 121: 453-461.

Velikova, V., Yordancv, I. and Edreva, A. 2000. Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants. Protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Science, 151: 59-66.

Weber, H., Chetelat, A., Reymond, P. and Farmer, E.E. 2004. Selective and powerful stress gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to malondialdehyde. Plant Journal, 37: 877–889.

Zhang, C.Q., Hong, B., Li, J.K. and Gao, J.P. 2005. A simple method to evaluate the drought tolerance of ground-cover chrysanthemum rooted cuttings. Scientia Agriculture Sinica, 38: 789-796.

Zhu, X., Gong, H., Chen, G., Wang, S. and Zhang, C. 2005. Different solute levels in two spring wheat cultivars induced by progressive field water stress at different developmental stages. Journal of Arid Environment, 62: 1–14.