Study of Ethanol Presence in Some Ornamental and Aromatic Plants Using Gas Chromatography

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

2 Department of Chemistry, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.

3 Department of Nursing & Midwifery, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

4 Department of Agronomy, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.

Abstract

Plants re-emit a substantial fraction of their assimilated carbon into the atmosphere as biogenic volatile organic compound. According to the presence of relatively high amount of methanol in herbal distillates, finding different concentrations of ethanol in such drinks is expectable, as several studies appeared that produced ethanol by plants emits into the atmosphere as do methanol. In this study, ethanol content of 30 industrial herbal distillates made by three different companies was measured. For this purpose, some solutions with concentration of 10000 mgL-1 were prepared from ethanol and methanol separately as original and internal standard sources that in continue, different concentrations of standards were prepared from ethanol solution and after it, 50 µL methanol solution was added to all of the standards and samples as internal standard and then, all of them were examined with GC. The obtained results indicated that some of the herbal distillates contain ethanol. Maximum and minimum amount of ethanol existed in Rosa damascena L., (rose water) with mean value 96.4 mgL-1 and Salix aegyptiaca L., distillate (only one sample had 15.5 mgL-1 and in two other samples were not seen)   respectively, while most of the examined samples had no ethanol. Presence of ethanol in some of the examined samples showed that further study is necessary to achieve correct information about this subject.

Keywords


Alpi, A., Perata, P. and Beevers, H. 1985. Physiological responses of cereal seedlings to ethanol. Journal of Plant Physiology, 119: 77-85.

Andres, R., Làzaro, J., Chueca, A., Hermoso, R. and Gorge, L. 1990. Effect of alcohols on the association of photosynthetic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase to thylakoid membranes. Journal of Physiologia Plantarum, 78: 409–413.

Barata, A. L. 1984.  Ethanol synthesis and loss from flooded roots of Medicago sativa L. and Lotus comiculatus L. Journal of Plant, Cell & Environment. 7: 187-191.

Hemming, N. G., Reeder, R. J. and Hanson, G. N. 1995. Mineral-fluid partitioning and isotopic fractionation of boron in synthetic calcium carbonate. Journal of Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 59: 371-379.

Jackson, M.B., Herman, B. and Goodenough, A. 1982. An examination of the importance of        ethanol in causing injury to flooded plants. Journal of Plant, Cell & Environment, 5: 163-172.

Peñuelas, J. and Llusià, J. 2003. BVOCs: plant defense against climate warming? Journal of Trends in Plant Science, 8(3): 105-109.

Perata, P. and Alpi, A.1990. Ethanol-induced injuries to carrot cells: the role of acetaldehyde. Journal of Plant Physiology, 95 (3):748-52.

Perata, P., Alpi, A. and Loschiavo, F. 1986. Influence of ethanol on plant cells and tissuse. Journal of Plant Physiology, 126: 181-188.

Rafizadeh, A., NasiriFard, R., Nasoori Gazni, M., Haghshenas, M. and PoorMohammad, L. 2013. The effectiveness of concentration on the result of methanol test in homemade herbal distillates. Journal of Ornamental and Horticultural Plants, 3(2): 105-109.

Rafizadeh, A., Pourmohammad, L., Shariati, SH. and Fooladmehr, S. 2010. Application a colorimetric method for qualitative analysis of methanol. Scientific Journal of Forensic Medicine, 16(2): 89-94. [Persian]

Rafizadeh, A., Pourmohammad, L., Shariati, SH. and Mirzajani, E. 2011. Introduce of a colorimetric method for qualitative detection of methanol in several kinds of drinks. Journal of Mazandaran Medical Science, 21(84): 150-152. [In Persian]

Rajala, A., Kärkkäinen, J., Peltonen, J. and Peltonen-Sainio, P. 1998. Foliar applications of alcohols failed to enhance growth and yield of C3 crops. Journal of Industrial Crops and Products, 7: 129-137.

Roberts, J. K., Callis, J., Jardetzky, O., Walbot, V. and Freeling, M. 1984. Cytoplasmic acidosis as a determinant of flooding in tolerance in plant. Journal of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 81(19): 6029-6033.