Document Type : Research Paper


Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticultural Science,Tarbiat Modares University,Tehran, Iran


Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most important cut flowers in the world. Themajority of thecarnation cultivars are sensitive to ethylene which affected the physiological and biochemical postharvest characteristics of these flowers.Applying inhibitors of biosynthesis and action of ethylene is important factor to protect the display quality and extend postharvest life. In order to evaluate the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene on antioxidant enzymes activity of cut carnation cv. Fortune and subsequently on extending the vase life, this experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3replications. Carnation cut flowers were firstly treated with 1-MCP at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 µl/l for 24 h and  subsequently exposed to ethylene (1 µl/l) for 16 h. Data were analyzed using MSTAT-C statistical software and means were compared based on Least Significant Differences (LSD) test (p < 0.01). Our results showed that 1-MCP treatment had significant effects on vase life and biochemical characteristics like contents of leaf chlorophyll, petal anthocyanin, petal cell membrane stability and antioxidant enzymes activity such as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. The highest vase life and cell membrane stability were appeared in 1.5 µl/l 1-MCP which was significantly higher than 0 and 0.5 µl/l, although there was no significant difference with 1 µl. The highest chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents were also measured under 1.5 µl/l 1-MCP which was significantly higher than other treatments. The highest and lowest catalase and peroxidase activity were related to 1 and 0 µl/l 1-MCP, respectively. The highest and lowest superoxide dismutase activity was observed in 1.5 and 0 µl/l 1-MCP.  In conclusion, application of 1-MCP improved and delayed the onset of senescence symptoms resulted in extending the vase life of cut carnation cv. Fortune. 


Ahmadi, N., Mibus, H. and Serek, M. 2008. Isolation of an ethylene induced putative nucleotide laccase in miniature roses(Rosa hybrida L.). Plant Growth Regulation, 27: 320–330.
Ahmadi, N., Mibus, H. and Serek, M. 2009. Characterization of ethylene-induced organ abscission in F1 breeding lines of miniature roses(Rosa hybrida L.). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 52: 260–266.
Asil, M., Karimi, M. and Zakizadeh, H. 2013. 1-MCP improves the postharvest quality of cut spray carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)‘Optima’flowers. Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology.54(1): 58-62.
Barth, C., De Tullio, M. and Conklin, P. L. 2006. The role of ascorbic acid in the control of flowering time and the onset of senescence. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57(8): 1657-1665.
Bradford,  M. M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry. 72: 248-254.
Buchanan-Wollaston, V. 1997. The molecular biology of leaf senescence. Journal of Experimental Botany.48(2): 181-199.
Cakmak, I. and Horst, W. J. 1991. Effect of aluminium on lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activities in root tips of soybean(Glycine max). Physiologia Plantarum. 83: 463-468.
Cameron, A. C. and Reid, M. S. 2001. 1-MCP blocks ethylene-induced petal abscission of Pelargonium peltatum but the effect is transient. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 22: 169-177.
Chance, B. and Maehly, A. C. 1955. Assay of catalase and peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology. SP Colowick, NO Kaplan, Eds. 2: 764-775.
Chutichudet, P., Chutichudet, B. and Boontiang, K. 2010b. Effect of 1-MCP fumigation on vase life and other postharvest qualities of siam tulip(Curcuma aeruqinosa Roxb.)cv. Laddawan.International Journal of Agricultural Research. 5(1): 1-10.
Daneshi Nergi, M. A. and Ahmadi, N. 2014. Effects of 1-MCP and ethylene on postharvest quality and expression of senescence-associated genes in cut rosecv. Sparkle. Scientia Horticulturae, 166: 78–83.
Das, P. K., Geul, B., Choi, S. B., Yoo, S. D. and Park, Y. I. 2011. Photosynthesis-dependent anthocyanin pigmentation in arabidopsis. Journal of Plant Signaling and Bihavior, 61: 23
Djanaguiraman, M., Prasad, P. and Al-Khatib, K. 2011. Ethylene perception inhibitor 1-MCP decreases oxidative damage of leaves through enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms in soybean plants grown under high temperature stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany.71(2): 215-223.
Ebeles, F. B., Morgan, P. W. and Sahveit, M. E. 1992. Ethylen in plant biology. Second Edition., 414 p., Academic Press, New York.
Ezhilmathi, K., Singh, V., Arora, A. and Sairam, R. 2007. Effect of 5-sulfosalicylic acid on antioxidant activity in relation to vase life of Gladiolus cut flowers. Plant Growth Regulation.51: 99-108.
Francis, F. J. 1989. Food colorant. Anthocyanins. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.28: 273-314.
Gao, C., Wang, Y., Liu, G., Wang, C., Jiang, J. and Yang, C. 2010. Cloning of ten peroxidase (POD) genes from Tamarix  hispida and characterization of their responses to abiotic stress. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter. 28(1): 77-89.
Hassan, F. and Ali, E. 2014. Protective effects of 1-methylcyclopropene and salicylic acid on senescence regulation of gladiolus cut spikes. Scientia Horticulturae. 179: 146-152.
Hershkovitz, V., Saguy, S. I. and Pesis, E. 2005. Postharvest application of 1-MCP to improve the quality of various avocado cultivars. Postharvest Biology and Technology.37(3): 252-264.
In, B. C., Strable, J., Binder, B. M., Falbel, T. G. and Patterson, S. E. 2013. Morphological and molecular characterization of ethylene binding inhibition in carnations. PostharvestBiology and Technology. 86: 272-279.
Jiang, Y. M. and Chen, F. 1995. A study on polyamine change and browning of fruit during cold storage of litchi(Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Postharvest Biology and Technology. 5(3): 245-250.
Jiang, Y.,  Duan, X., Joyce, D., Zhang, Z. and Li, J. 2004. Advance in understanding of enzymatic browning in harvested litchi fruit. Food Chemistry, 88(3): 443-446.
Karimi, M. 2014. Change in ethylene production and ACC content of potted carnation in response to anti-ethylene treatments. International Journal of Biosciences. 4(8): 116-123.
Krizek, D. T., Kramer, G. F., Upadhyaya, A. and Mirecki, R. M. 1993. UV‐B response of cucumber seedlings grown under metal halide and high pressure sodium/deluxe lamps. Physiologia Plantarum. 88: 350-358.
Larrigaudiere, C., Vilaplana, R., Soria, Y. and Recasens, I. 2004. Oxidative behaviour of Blanquilla pears treated with 1‐methylcyclopropene during cold storage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 84(14): 1871-1877.
Li, Z., Wang, L., Wang, W. and Zhu, Y. 2007. Physiological effect and application of 1-MCP  on delaying fruit senescence. Journalof Plant Physiology. 43: 201-206.
Ma, N., Tan, H., Liu, X., Xue,  J., Li, Y. and Gao, J. 2006. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene receptor and CTR genes involved in ethylene-induced flower opening in cut rose (Rosa hybrida) cv. Samantha. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57(11): 2763-2773.
Mayak, S., Legge, R. L. and Thompson, J. E. 1983. Superoxide radical production by microsomal membranes from senescing carnation flowers: an effect on membrane fluidity. Phytochemistry. 22(6): 1375-1380.
Miao, L. and St Clair, D. K. 2009. Regulation of superoxide dismutase genes: implications in disease. Free Radical Biology and Medicine.47(4): 344-356.
Richardson, A. D., Duigan, S. P. and Berlyn, G. P. 2002. An evaluation of noninvasive methods to estimate foliar chlorophyll content. New Phytologist. 153: 185-194.
Seglie, L., Martina, K., Devecchi, D., Roggero, C., Trotta, F. and Scariot, V. 2011. The effects of 1-MCP in cyclodextrin-based nanosponges to improve the vase life of Dianthus caryophyllus cut flowers. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 59: 200-205.
Serek, M.,  Jones, R. B. and Reid, M. S. 1994. Role of ethylene in opening and senescence of Gladiolus sp. flowers.American Society for Horticultural Science, 119: 1014-1019.
Serek, M., Praducki, A. and Sisler, E.C. 1998. Inhibitors of ethylene action affect final quality and rooting of cuttings before and after storage. Hort Science, 33: 153-155.
Serek, M. and Sisler, E. C. 2001. Efficacy of inhibitors of ethylene binding in improvement of the postharvest charactericts of potted flowering plants. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 23:161-166.
Singh, K. 1994. Effects of spermidine, IAA, ACC and ethylene on petal longevity in carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Journal of Phyton. 34,309-313.
Singh, H.,  Hallan, V., Raikhy, G., Kulshrestha, S., Sharma, M., Ram, R., Garg, I. and Zaidi, A., 2005. Characterization of an Indian isolate of carnation mottle virus infecting carnations. Current Science. 88: 594-601.
Spanou, C. I., Veskoukis, A. S., Stagos, D., Liadaki, K., Aligiannis, N., Angelis, A., Skaltsounis, A. L., Anastasiadi, M., Haroutounian, S. A. and Kouretas, D. 2012. Effects of Greek legume plant of extracts on xanthine oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Journal  of Physiology and Biochemistry,68(1): 37-45.
Staskawicz, B. J.,  Ausubel, F. M., Baker, B. J., Ellis, J. G. and Jones, J. D., 1995. Molecular genetics of plant disease resistance. Science, 268(5211):661-667.
Wang, Y., Zhang, L. and Zhu, S. 2014. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-induced protein expression associated with changes inTsai Tai (Brassica chinensis) leaves during low temperature storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 87: 120-125.
Xie, M., Zhang, J. and Xie, J. 2003. Relationships between some physio-biochemical changes and senescence during storage in bitter gourd. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica.24(4): 716-719.
Yamane, K., Yamaki, Y. and Fujishige, N. 2004. Effects of exogenous ethylene and 1-MCP on ACC oxidase activity, ethylene production and vase life in Cattleya alliances. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science. 73:128-133.
Yang, S. F. and Hoffman, N. E. 1984. Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology,35: 155-189.
Yang, X., Song, J., Campbell-Palmer, L., Fillmore, S. and Zhang, Z. 2013. Effect of ethylene and 1-MCP on expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and perception during ripening of apple fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 78: 55-66.
Yuan, G., Sun, B., Yuan, J. and Wang, Q.2010. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on shelf life, visual quality, antioxidant enzymes and health-promoting compounds in broccoli florets. Food Chemistry, 118(3): 774-781.
Zhang, Z., Pang, X., Ji, Z. and Jiang, Y. 2001. Role of anthocyanin degradation in litchi pericarp browning. Food Chemistry,75(2): 217-221.
Zhang, P., Zhang, M., Wang, S. and Wu, Z., 2012. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene treatment on green asparagus quality during cold storage. International Agrophysics,26(4): 407-411.
Zhou, Q., Ma, C., Cheng, S., Wei, B., Liu, X. and Ji, S., 2014. Changes in antioxidative metabolism accompanying pitting development in stored blueberry fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 88: 88-95.