Identification and Assessment of Fungal Diseases of Major Medicinal Plants

Authors

Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Medicinal plants are infected by fungal diseases. A four years survey indicated that, there are various fungal infections in roots and shoots of several medicinal plants that grown in Isfahan. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rosemarry (Rosmarinus officinalis) and viper’s bugloss (Borago officinalis) plants were infected by Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani on roots, showing wilting and eventually plants death, though, F. culmorum was also isolated, but without pathogenicity on these hosts. The sage plants (Salvia officinalis) were also infected by F. solani considerably. Burdock plants (Aractium lappal) were infected not only byF.oxysporum and F.solani, but also Verticillium dahliae and V. albo- atrum and common balm (Melissa officinalisl) by F. solani. They were also simultaneously infected by Rhizoctonia solani. The aerial infections were mainly powdery mildews, downy mildews and rust. The naked seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. sterica) and common pumpkin (Cucurbita popo) were infected by Erysiphe cichoracearum and Sphaerotheca fuliginea., Johns-worth hypericum (Hypericum perforatum), by Leveillula guttiferatum and E. hypersici., estragon (Artemisia dracunculus) by E. artemisiae., bitter sweet (Solanum dulcamara) by E. beceleate., flixweld (Descurainia sophia) by E. communiis., marsh mallows (Althaea officinalis and Malva silvestris) by L. malvacearum., licoric (Glycyrrhiza globra) by L. leguminosar, dill (Anethum graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) by L. umbelleferatum., downy mildews were observed on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Peronospora farinosa, summer savory (Satureia hortensis) P. Lamii and waybread (Plantago major) P. alta. There was also rust diseases on medicinal plants including, estragon (Puccinia absinthi), wild thyme (Thymus serpllum) P. serpylli, P. mentha and also on pudding grass (Mentha pulegium) and peppermint (Mentha piperita) P. mentha. white rusts, Albugo candida, were also observed on some of the medicinal plants including, flixweld and mother’s heart (Capsella bursa-pastoris). The two species of Verticillium dahha and V. albo- atrum with lower frequency on some of the medicinal plants especially on lavander, rosemarry, pudding gross, pepper mint, castor (Ricinus communis) was found and there were typical symptoms on pepper mint. Rhizoctionia solani is an another fungal infecting agents, causing dry canker on roots and underground stems of some of the medicinal plants in this area.

Keywords